What is the core of your research?
My research studies the impacts of our energy and environmental decisions to help us understand the trade-offs involved, so that countries and societies can make better choices.

The world is experiencing an energy crisis currently which is brought on by geopolitics — but how do you analyse the term ‘energy crisis’?
I think what all countries are facing now is what I call a ‘global energy challenge’ — that means trying to find a balance between three different things. These are the need for inexpensive and reliable energy (which is critical for enhancing living standards), minimising local environmental quality impacts like air pollution and avoiding disruptive climate change. However, there is no policy that can achieve all three. Therefore, countries are trying to figure out how to trade these three different goals off each other.

In this trade-off, the current energy crisis has raised the importance of having inexpensive and reliable energy and, at least for the time being, diminished the importance of environmental quality and climate change — however, I expect that over the long run, energy prices will stabilise and we will devote more resources to sustainable environmental goals.